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How Can Micro-chinese Medicine Osmotherapy Help Patients Eliminate Hematuria

After the symptom of persistent Hematuria appears, some patients of Chronic Renal Disease went to many doctors for treatment, for fear of the disease developing into Uremia. When the disease improves, like hematuria is gone, however, because of a sudden cold, fever and fatigue, the symptoms may appear again. Everything just returns to the start point. In this way, the vicious circle goes over and over again.

How can Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy Eliminate Hematuria?

As we all know, the main cause of having red blood cells in urine is the increase of permeability caused by damaged glomerular filtration membrane. Western medical treatment only focuses on improving the symptoms, but has weak pertinence in the recovery of glomerular filtration membrane. Even if the occult blood decreases or disappears for a period of time, no underlying problems are solved, and the glomerular filtration membrane is not recovered. With the disappearance of medicine effects or other causes, occult blood will occur again.

The micronized Chinese medicine has stronger drug activity. It made full use of the advantages of Chinese medicine: to have a permanent cure, and make a second link of the cracked molecular Chinese medicine, which formed a new function. At the same time, contraposing the damaged glomerular basement membrane, it can remove the immune complex and pathological tissues, and then recover the damaged basement membrane. This therapy is to recover the damaged pathological renal gene and cellules neoplasiques, activate the reproduction of DNA in the damaged histocyte, impel the change of renal structure, and recover the damaged renal function. As the permanent cause was removed, the occult blood will gradually decrease and disappear, which would disappear with the elimination of pathogeny, so, there would be little possibility of repeated outbreak or rebound after drug withdrawal.

Therefore, in terms of Hematuria treatment caused by renal disease, the key lies in effecting a permanent cure, which means to recover the damaged basement membrane, or rather deceived by the superficial phenomenon, chasing the figures on test reports. Only in this way can we achieve the treatment effect in the true sense.

Can What You Eat Really Affect Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is something we are all well aware of. The dangers are constantly around us, and we are led to believe that the only way we can possibly get skin cancer, is if we expose our skin to too much sunlight without wearing protection.

However, there are some studies which claim that what we eat can also have a drastic effect on our chances of developing the condition. On the other hand some studies say that our diet cannot affect the condition. So what are we supposed to believe? Can our diet really affect our chances of getting skin cancer? Or is it just a load of rubbish?

Skin Cancer and Our Diet

There is also some kind of research going on in order to find links between our lifestyle and cancer. We all know that our diet affects our skin, but did you know that your diet could also affect skin cancer?

The suns UV levels are apparently a good source of vitamin D for our bodies. Whilst that may be true, there are people that go off into the sun without adequate protection, thinking that Vitamin D will help them reduce the risk of skin cancer, as well as other cancers, and that they will not be harmed because Vitamin D is good for them.

However, whilst it is true that the sun does help our bodies to have a higher Vitamin D production, it is still well known for giving us skin cancer. This means that we need to get our Vitamin D from other sources, for example in our diets.

It is thought that fatty diets increase our risk of developing skin cancer. Studies have been done on mice, where scientists have underfed a group of them, exposed them to chemicals which promote skin cancer, and they have found that fewer underfed mice developed the condition compared to the other group of mice who did not have their calorie intake reduced.

So this showed that somehow, eating healthier and having a calorie restricted diet, somehow helped to promote a protective hormone, which stopped some of the mice developing skin cancer. However, the studies have not shown fully which gland produced the hormone, so those tests are currently incomplete.

There is no denying that the diet plays a big part in our skin condition, and it is more than likely that it does in fact affect our chances of developing skin cancer. So what foods should we be eating?

Oily fish is extremely good for the skin and fish such as salmon can really help to cut chances of skin cancer down. This is because the omega three fatty acids help to repair DNA damage caused by the cancer.

Eating oily fish three times a week has been proven to reduce a persons risk of burning in the sun right down after a month, and after three months, the risk of burning in the sun is further reduced by up to 33%.

However, whilst they may help to cut down the risk, they are still no match for fierce sun levels and sun protection should still be worn.

It is thought that a healthy diet is your best defense against all forms of cancer, and eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables is definitely the way to go! Cutting down on salty and sugary foods is also definitely a good idea, as is increasing the amount of calcium you get daily.

Overall there is research to say that diet affects skin cancer, and research to suggest that it does not. If you are unsure your best bet is to simply eat healthier anyway. Eating healthy is good for the skin whether you are trying to prevent skin cancer or not.

Trying to get at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day is what you should be aiming for, and also cutting down on really fatty foods. If you are unsure about anything you can always consult a doctor or nutritionist and they will be able to give you more advice.

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Spices Shield Against Skin Cancer

Spices Save Your Skin

Skin cancers are the commonest cancers globally and by far the majority of these ubiquitous tumours are caused by excessive exposure to the sun.

The sun’s ultraviolet rays (UVR) are those responsible for inducing several pre-malignant processes in the skin. Not only do they damage DNA directly but they also cause inflammation, excess free radical production and immunosuppression. These factors combine to form a tumourigenic cocktail that increases the risk for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers.

In spite of their potentially damaging effects UVRs also provide crucial health benefits; therefore it is important that the human skin is exposed to the sun for limited periods of time. The most important of these benefits is UVB rays’ involvement in the production of vitamin D from dehydrocholesterol in the deep layers of the skin.

There is also evidence that a lack of exposure to the sun’s rays is a significant factor in the development of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and certain malignancies other than skin cancer.

It is worth noting that the human body does attempt to prevent the accumulation of radiation damage and does so by initiating repair mechanisms at relatively low levels of radiation exposure.

These processes involve both intrinsic and extrinsic (plant derived) antioxidants, enzymes and other protective plant based compounds and work in the following ways:

1. Activation of mechanisms that counter free radical damage and oxidative stress.

2. Acceleration of programmed cell death (apoptosis) of pre-cancerous cells.

3. Activation of DNA repair mechanisms at low levels of radiation exposure.

There is a dichotomy in relation to UVR. On the one hand, in order to sustain normal physiological processes, we need a certain amount of exposure to the sun. However, if we are exposed to excessive amounts of UVR and have inadequate protective biological processes, we increase our risk for several different types of skin cancer.

It seems obvious that, as humans have lived for eons with constant exposure to the sun, our bodies would have adapted protective strategies to counter the damaging effects of UVR while still obtaining the benefits thereof. We now know what some of these strategies are but, in order to understand how to enhance them, we need to take a look back over thousands of years at the vital role nutrient dense plant foods play in this regard.

Only a few thousand years ago our hunter-gatherer ancestors roamed, more or less naked, predominantly in the sun-drenched regions of the planet. Thanks to a more extensive ozone layer, they were probably exposed to slightly lower doses of UV radiation per unit time than we are today. However they undoubtedly spent long periods of time in the sun while they hunted and collected plant foods. They also had dark skins that gave them an extra measure (but by no means complete) of protection against excessive UVR exposure. There is evidence that they lived well into their sixties and were therefore subject to significant UVR exposure for several decades.

Protective phytonutrients

The key to our forefathers’ success in countering UVR damage was their consumption of a diet rich in phytonutrients. Owing to their active lifestyle, hunter-gatherer communities consumed a high calorific diet. The difference between their high calorie diet and a contemporary high calorie diet is that the former consisted largely of richly flavoured (spicy), phytonutrient-dense plant foods while the modern diet is dominated by relatively bland nutrient deficient plant foods.

The nutritional characteristics of the plants that hunter-gatherers consumed were different to ours in that they had far higher phytonutrient/calorie ratios to the plants we eat today. Those that are available nowadays are generally energy dense plant foods with much lower phytonutrient/calorie ratios.

There are two reasons for this. Firstly, we eat many grain based foods that have very high carbohydrate levels and relatively low phytonutrient levels. Secondly, over the centuries, we have bred varieties of most of our grains, fruit and vegetables that are far bigger, sweeter and starchier than they were in their natural state.

Add to this modern chemical farming methods and we now have plant foods with very low phytonutrient/calorie ratios that consist primarily of water and carbohydrates. These provide far fewer protective compounds than they did several thousand years ago. This translates into reduced intake of phytonutrients that, in adequate amounts, could protect us against UVR and other carcinogenic environmental factors.

The only food categories that have more or less escaped the plant breeders’ attentions are the spices. Spices are the plant foods closest to those that our ancestors ate. They have extremely high phytonutrient/calorie ratios and contain large concentrations of a wide variety of powerful antioxidants and other protective nutrients.

Recent scientific evidence has shown that several spices contain compounds that are very effective in countering UVR damage to the skin. These molecules possess the ability to act as direct and indirect antioxidants. They have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and can activate genes that control lasting protective processes against UVR damage. Scientists working in this field have also noted that multiple antioxidant compounds (found in phytonutrient-rich plants) have a better protective effect than high doses of single antioxidant supplements.

Spices known to have specific protective effects against radiation damage are:

Turmeric contains the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, curcumin that has remarkable cancer fighting abilities against several cancers including melanomas.

Mustard contains sulphorafane, a non-antioxidant compound also found in cruciferous plants such as broccoli. Sulphorafane works by activating the body’s intrinsic cellular defenses against UVR and has been shown counter skin malignancies when used both internally and topically.

Curcumin and sulphoraphane are only two of the spice-based compounds that are currently being studied as possible treatments for a range of skin and other cancers. However, as spices provide a wide array of antioxidant and other protective compounds, it is highly likely that there are many more of them that can help us contain skin cancers as they undoubtedly did for our hunter-gatherer ancestors.

A combination of selective plant breeding, modern agricultural methods and poor dietary habits means that, without an injection into our diets of a significant quantity and variety of phytonutrient-rich foods such as spices, it almost impossible to obtain the optimum quantities of protective plant compounds. Until we do so we will continue to see a rise in the incidence of skin cancers and other malignancies.

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What brings about liver cancer

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material located in all human cells. DNA is a code that contains guidelines for the production of all physique characteristics this kind of as sex, top, eye and hair colour. DNA is inherited from mothers and fathers.

Cancercer

Cancer takes place when the framework of DNA is a sudden change. This is known as a genetic mutation. The DNA also offers cells with guidelines about when to expand, reproduce, and when to end playing. The mutation in the DNA changes these guidelines, so the cells proceed to develop. The cells carry on to reproduce uncontrollably. The production of a mass of tissue is regarded as a tumor. There are two varieties of tumor:

Benign – exactly where the cells do not have the capacity to spread past the tumor

Malignant – in which the cells can spread past the tumor and impact other physique components

The DNA in the cells can be modified by publicity to chemicals or toxic substances. A toxic substance that leads to cancer is identified as a carcinogen.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis

It is nonetheless unclear what brings about the liver cells to turn out to be cancerous. But in some cases, the lead to is unfamiliar. For instance, continual infection with hepatitis B or C can result in liver cancer. Nonetheless, cirrhosis by itself is a important threat aspect.
In the past, most cases of cirrhosis connected with HCC were alcohol abuse. However, in current years, the principal trigger of HCC is cirrhosis brought on by viral infections transmitted by blood, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
What are the chance elements for liver cancer?

A danger aspect is one thing that boosts your opportunity of establishing a condition or ailment. For illustration, obesity significantly will increase the chance of developing variety 2 diabetes. Consequently, obesity is a danger component for form two diabetes. Factors that increase the threat of primary liver cancer incorporate:

* Age. In North America, Europe and Australia, liver cancer most typically has an effect on the elderly. In building international locations of Asia and Africa, liver cancer prognosis tends to take place at a youthful age (in between 20 and 50).
* Specific inherited ailments of the liver. Liver disorder may well enhance the threat of liver cancer contain hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis and Wilson’s illness.
* Chronic infection with HBV or HCV. Persistent infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) boosts the threat of liver cancer.
* Cirrhosis. This disorder brings about progressive and irreversible scarring of the liver and increases the possibilities of building liver cancer.
* Diabetes. People today with this condition of blood sugar have a increased possibility of liver cancer.
* Excessive consumption of alcohol. Consuming much more than a reasonable quantity of alcohol can lead to irreversible liver injury and improve the chance of liver cancer.
* Exposure to aflatoxins. Consumption of meals contaminated with aflatoxin-making fungi drastically increases the chance of liver cancer. Crops this kind of as maize and peanuts can develop into contaminated with aflatoxins.
* Disease NAFLD. The accumulation of excess fat in the liver increases the danger of liver cancer.
* Obesity. Possessing a balanced physique mass index will increase the threat of liver cancer.
* Intercourse. Males are much more most likely to acquire liver cancer than women. It is important to detect the cancer at early stages and start the correct treatment for liver cancer
What leads to liver cancer?

I am a 23 years old boy who is studing biology in harvard university and miss the sunny days

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Curcumin- The Wonder Drug Acne Skin Care

Curcumin is a phytochemical compound derived from spicy turmeric, an herb used for centuries in Chinese and Indian Ayurvedic medicine. It is the active ingredient form of turmeric, which cures analgesic problems and anti-inflammatory problems. It is one of the best known medicines for aging and acne skin problems. Curcumin exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.

Almost all people get acne skin problems at certain point of time in their life. Normally acne problems start with pimples, but if it is not cured properly, it can lead to severe and painful conditions. Because acne occurs during formative years, the psychosocial and economic impact is undeniable. Acne can cause social isolation which may lead to depression: thus acne problems have to be treated with full care.

Aging of skin at early stages of life is another type of problem people suffer with. In the epidermis, collagen production slows, and elastin, the substance that allows skin to snap, becomes less effective. Dead skin cells dont shed as fast either. Aging can also be due to smoking, excessive UV exposure, and free radicals. Skin cells end up becoming inflamed. There are various anti-inflammatory agents available naturally and artificially in the world which treats aging: and Curcumin is one among them.

Curcumin reduces fats and aids blood circulation; it is a powerful anti-bacterial, antiseptic and astringent that naturally exfoliates skin. Curcumin is a free radical scavenger and antioxidant, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage: thereby reducing the appearance of fine lines. If enhanced with tartaric acid (alpha-hydroxy acid from grapes), or pomegranate or green tea extract, it is a powerful anti-oxidant that prevents premature aging of the skin. If combined with citric acid (grape fruit and mandarin orange) and willow back, it keeps skin healthy by preventing the inflammation and accumulation of dead skin cells.

Curcumin has the ability to deeply penetrate into pores of the skin and blemishes- and it can help prevent future acne. Researchers have conducted various studies on Curcumin and found that it has the ability to cure medical conditions such as inflammations, lowering cholesterol, reducing blood clotting and even acting as an anti-cancer agent.

Curcumin is known in the scientific world as diferuloylmethane. It can be extracted from the rhizome of the Turmeric plant. It has been scientifically proven to suppress cellular transformation, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis through a mechanism not fully understood. Extensive research over the past 50 years shows that this tautomeric polyphenol can both prevent and treat cancer. Curcumins ability to suppress tumor initiation, promotion, and metastasis has been clearly demonstrated in countless studies.

Acne is a type of skin problem found in most teenagers. Researchers found that if a turmeric mask is applied regularly on the face overnight, it reduces acne skin problems. For years, it was not known how turmeric has this ability. Recently it was found that Curcumin is responsible for reducing the size of inflamed acne and acne scars. It also helps acne damaged tissues to heal faster- making acne scars noticeably lighter.

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Many infections, one medicine – Generic Flagyl

Flagyl, an antibiotic, is used to treat various infections in the body including those of the skin, gut areas, pelvic cavity, brain abcesses, leg ulcers, pressure sores, gums, osteomyelitis, and necrotizing pneumonia. Generic Metronidazole, the medicinal compound in Flagyl, destroys the DNA function in vulnerable anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. The medicine is effectively used in the prevention of infection following a surgical procedure, particularly after childbirth. It is also used to cure bacterial Vaginosis, urogenital Trichomoniasis, and Amoebic Dysentery.

Generic Metronidazole in Flagyl, belongs to the antibiotic class of drugs called nitroimidazoles, and is used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria [that do not need oxygen to survive] and micro-organisms called protozoa. Metronidazole is believed to disable the DNA synthesis in the susceptible bacteria, thereby preventing functioning of the existing bacteria and inhibiting further development.

Flagyl has been found to be extremely effective when used in the prevention and treatment of infections following gynaecological surgery such as Puerperal fever or Sepsis that can occur after childbirth, or Giardiasis that is a gut infection. This medicine is equally effective in treating Septicaemia [blood poisoning], Brain abcesses, Necrotizing Pneumonia, Osteomyelitis [infection in the bones], Pelvic abcesses, Peritonitis [abdominal infection], Bacterial Vaginosis [vaginal infection caused by bacteria], Urogenital Trichomoniasis [a sexually transmitted genital infection], and Amoebic Dysentery [a protozoal infection]. The medicine helps to cure Dental infections, Ulcerative Gingivitis [gum inflammation and ulcers], and bacteria-infected leg ulcers as well as pressure sores.

Flagyl Generic is an oral medication, though for serious infections, Metronidazole is administered intravenously in the beginning, followed by the oral treatment. The dosage may vary according to the infection, as in treating infection of brain abcesses, when a high dose has to be given. The medicine is given according to the patient’s medical condition and should be taken as advised by the doctor. It is recommended that the medicine should not be chewed, but swallowed with a lot of water; it can be taken regardless of food. Even if you feel better soon, the entire therapy must be taken, as antibiotics often help to make one feel better quickly, but if the course is not completed, you run the risk of the infection returning. While on this treatment, and for at least 48 hours later, you should not consume alcohol, otherwise you may experience a great deal of discomfort from nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, headache, in addition to flushing.

Before the physician puts you on to Flagyl, let the doctor know about all the ailments you’ve suffered from; all the medicines [prescription, OTC], nutritional supplements, herbal products you’re taking; and if you have any known allergies, particularly to Metronidazole or any Nitroimidazole derivative. Let the treating doctor know if you have a decreased liver function, Hepatic Encephalopathy [a brain disease caused by an underlying liver problem], Seizures, Crohn’s disease, Prophyrias [an inherited blood disorder], Anemia [inadequate number of red blood cells], or Leukopenia [inadequate number of white blood cells]. The doctor has to know about all your medicines, so that the correct dose can be worked out, and lab tests be instituted, wherever necessary, to monitor your condition.

For Amoebic Dysentery, or an Amoebic abcess in the liver, the dose varies but is usually administered from 5-10 days. Flagyl is recommended in pediatrics only for treatment of Amoebiasis – for children who have such problems, normally 3 doses are given for a period of 10 days. As plasma clearance decreases in patients having a decreased liver function, geriatrics have to undergo lab tests for monitoring of serum levels, so that they get just the right dose of the medicine.

To treat very severe anaerobic infections, Flagyl is usually administered intravenously at the beginning, followed with an oral dose every 6 hours [dependent upon weight], lasting 7-10 days. In the treatment of infections of the bones, joints, lower respiratory tract, and endocardium, the therapy can extend beyond the usual 10 days, and the dosage pattern can vary. Those who suffer from a serious hepatic disease are given low doses of Flagyl, to prevent accumulation of Metronidazole in the plasma.

There are a large number of drugs that interact with Metronidazole. If taken together with anticoagulants [Warfarin, Nicoumalone], there can be adverse effects – the risk of bleeding may increase in such patients. Antiepileptic medicines like Phenobarbital can render Flagyl less effective. Those taking Flagyl with Ciclosporin, or Lithium, will have to get their blood levels and kidney function checked from time-to-time; while those who take Metronidazole with Fluorouracil [an anti-cancer medicine] can find an increase in the side-effects caused by Flourouracil, though Flagyl does not reduce the anti-cancer effect. If taken with Phenytoin, Flagyl is capable of increasing blood levels that will have to be monitored.

Metronidazole is not recommended for patients on Disulfram treatment, as the two taken together tend to enhance psychotic symptoms, adversely affecting paranoia and bring about hallucinations, unless 2 weeks have passed since the patient last took Disulfram.

Some side-effects that commonly occur include nausea, vomiting, headache, stomachache/abdominal cramps, epigastric discomfort [due to feeling of fullness in the throat/esophagus], diarrhea, or conversely constipation, a distinct unpleasant taste, hives, rash, dryness of mouth or vagina, incontinence, or pelvic pressure. If any of these symptoms worsen or persist, then you must contact your doctor at once. Severe allergic reactions to Flagyl are unlikely, but can include the usual reactions, like: rash, itching, swelling, laboured breathing, or severe dizziness.

Serious but unlikely side effects may occur if Flagyl is administered for a prolonged period, such as: convulsive seizures, peripheral neuropathy [numbness/tingling of hands/feet], mood changes, painful urination, white patches in the mouth, or a new vaginal yeast infection; or should you happen to experience a rare but serious side-effect that may present itself in the form of a sore throat, unusual bleeding/bruising, or fever, then in any such condition, you must immediately inform your physician who will give further advice. However, most people who are being treated with Flagyl, do not experience severe side effects.

Pregnant or lactating women should seek the doctor’s advice before taking Flagyl, so should those who are planning to conceive. For treatment of Trichomoniasis, pregnant patients are not given the drug in the first trimester, while for those for whom an alternative treatment has not yielded good results, the 1-day therapy cannot be given as it causes abnormally high serum levels that can affect the circulation in their fetus, for Metronidazole is known to cross the placental barrier. Dosage regimen for women and men having Trichomoniasis is based on the medical condition of the patient.

Women who are taking an oral Birth Control pill or using contraceptive patches, face a low risk of an unwanted pregnancy if administered Metronidazole; but to avoid even this low risk, it is recommended that such women should use an extra method to prevent childbirth while taking Flagyl, without a break, and continue with that for a week after the Flagyl therapy has ended. The gynaecologist or physician should be consulted for individualized advice.

The medicine in tablet formulation must be stored below a room temperature of 25oC, protected from light, heat and dampness; and kept away from children and pets.

Generic Metronidazole – the one-stop cure for treating various infections of the skin, lungs, gastro-genito-urinary tract, bones, gums, blood poisoning, and post-surgery in women following childbirth. Buy Flagyl Online from our Online Pharmacy at affordable price.

Skin Whitening Creams Can Cause Skin Cancer And Liver Damage.

Do you unequivocally value your complexion? Is there a flaw you would change in your appearance? One of the adjectives used to describe ideal skin is ‘baby fresh’ but we all understand the the more we age, the farther away it seems, it’s one of the side effects of aging.
Environmental influences like the sun or oral contraceptives can play a huge part in your gloominess when looking in the mirror. The natural environment can torment your skin but it has now also provide you the answer to all your problems.
What is Melasma? Melasma is a common skin condition characterized by dark, irregular marks on the cheeks, nose, and forehead. People abiding in locations with excessive sun exposure are more vulnerable to melasma. Recent studies have shown that birth control pills and DNA can play minor roles as well in their appearance.
While the formation of melasma is nothing to get too nervous about, some of the treatment techniques out there are flat out risky. It’s astounding to consider the fact that the cure can be more hazardous than the affliction.
Even Complexion People crave an even complexion. Spots of blotchy skin can make anyone feel awkward but the lengths people will go to in order to even up their complexion can be lethal.
Get Rid of Melasma The most common manner in which to get rid of melasma patches is to apply skin whitening or skin bleaching creams. What do you truly know about these creams? Many people with skin discolorations see the words ‘melasma treatment cream’ on the label and copiously bathe their skin in a cream they don’t know anything about.
What if I informed you that you could get cancer or liver damage by topically applying that melasma treatment cream? Skin bleaching creams have a large following of people. Sections of our culture feels that fresh, lily white skin is the epitome of beauty. No one can deny the characterization of light vs. dark skinned individuals in movies or history for that matter.
Skin Whitening Are people really ready to wager their lives in order to change their skin or repair sun damage that has changed their complexion?
Skin bleaching treatment creams usually contain two chemicals by the names of Hydroquinone and Mercury. Hydroquinone is an extremely noxious chemical. Its cardinal use is in the development of film and the dying of hair, not bleaching skin.
Mercury is one of the most dangerous materials on the planet. In case you don’t remember, Mercury is the liquid inside thermometers. What these two dangerous ingredients do in the framework of skin bleaching is restrict the creation of melanin. When someone suppresses the production of melanin, the basal layer of skin will appear clean and unblemished.
Melasma Prevention This appears like a quick and painless procedure but the reality is that these elements do a lot in internal damage. When someone goes to the beach or plays golf after using the skin bleaching ingredients, the UV rays emitted by the sun will react with the substances and lead to increased pigmentation changes and the early onset of wrinkles. With the increased pigmentation changes, people become a little anxious and apply more cream, it turns into a never ending cycle.
Melanin plays a large role in the body’s innate protection against sun damage. When production of melanin is suppressed, the chances of developing cancer increase. Mercury, when consumed by the skin, never entirely leaves the body. Long term application of Mercury will lead to liver damage and sometimes kidney failure. Are those melasma patches really disturbing you so much that you are willing to risk your health to heal them?
Natural Melasma Removal There is a technique to get rid of melasma without the risk of dangerous health implications. Helix Aspersa Muller Glycoconjugates is a natural skin care ingredient that deeply penetrate the skin and energize the normal renewal capabilities of the skin. The glycoconjugates are collected from a live creature.
Skin renewal activators possessed in the compound break down dead cells while simultaneously telling the body to foster new collagen and elastin cells, rejuvenating the skin from the inside out. Liposomes in the serum penetrate deep into cells and continue to supply biological molecules to the cells for up to 12 hours.
After intense sun exposure, it is important to saturate and replenish the lipid barrier of the skin. Melasma and other sun damaged areas need to be healed naturally from the inside by ordering cellular communication and diffusing the melanin patches.
Antioxidants present in Helix Aspersa Muller Glycoconjugates will help impede free radicals from generating. Antioxidants are molecules which interact with free radicals and cancel the dangerous chain reaction before molecules are hurt. Natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents limit oxidative damage after tissue injury.
Cell mutations caused by free radicals can lead to headaches such as molecular issues and even cancer. Degrading their progression saves healthy cells and cleans up damage inflicted by their presence.
We obviously couldn’t survive without the sun but simultaneously the sun can injure us. Melasma patches can develop because of excessive sun damage and dangerous UV rays.
Don’t do more damage to your body using a skin whitening cream that contains dangerous elements. Cancer and liver damage can be the result if you slop your skin with Hydroquinone and Mercury. Use a natural skin care ingredient collected from a land snail to effectively give yourself that clear and even complexion you so badly desire.

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Electron Ionization Cross Section in relation to dosage of medicine-Antimicrobial drugs

Electron Ionization Cross Section in relation to dosage of medicine-Antimicrobial drugs By (1 S.Kavitha, 2 V.R. Murthy,,3 K.R.S. Samba Siva Rao)1(Research Scholar, Dept. of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. India, 2(Prof.& Head, Dept. of Physics (P.G. Course), T.J.P.S. College, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. India. (3 Prof. & Head, Dept. of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. S.,*Corresponding author

Abstract

Physical parameters such as molecular polarizability, diamagnetic susceptibility, and molecular electron ionisation cross section are important parameters bearing some dependence on the dosage of the medicine through the electron transfer of the medicine in the process of diagnosis. Hence they are analysed and used in calculating the dosage of few anti-microbial drugs, in particular Quinolones. Data collected on Plasma protein binding Bioavailability, Half-life period and Log P show dependence on Q and is expressed in the form of a mathematical equation. The dosage thus calculated by above parameters has a good agreement with the suggested dosage values. For example Ciprofloxacin has the reported dosage value1.0grms/day against the calculated dosage value 0.849grams /day. In case of other drug Lomefloxacin, the calculated value is 0.394 grams /day against the reported value 0.4 grams /day. Similar observation was done in case of other quinolones compounds also. The present method enables a new approach in finding out the drug activity and is preferred to the highly theoretical approaches involving quantum mechanical methods.

Key words: Dosage, Half Life Period, Electron Ionisation cross section.

Introduction: The quinolones are potent synthetic chemotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics 1, 2. Since the introduction of Nalidixic acid in 1962 3, 4 several structural modifications have resulted in second, third and fourth generation antibiotics. With the recent introduction of agents such as Gatifloxacin and Moxifloxacin, the traditional gram-negative coverage of fluroquinolones has been expanded to include specific gram positive organisms5.Community acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Even with optimal therapy, this illness is associated with mortality rates of approximately 15 percent.6

Therapeutic uses of fluoroquinolones include the following: 1) For serious acute cases of pyelonephritis or bacterial prostatis, where the patient may need to be hospitalised, fluoroquinolones such as Ciprofloxacin, 7oflaxacin, lomefloxacin, enofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin are recommended.8 2) Due to excellent penetration into prostatic tissue, norfloxacin, levofloxacin,ciprofloxacin and iflaxacinhave eradication rates of 67 to 91%.9,7 3) The U.S.Food and drug administrationhas labelled gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin and levofloxacin for use in the treatment of acute sinusitis.10For severe forms of community aqured pneumonia , the fluroquinolones are associated with improved treatment rates.11 4) In case of sexually transmitted diseases, a single dose of ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin is considered as alternative treatment in for example patients with pencillin allergy.12 5) Fluroquinolones in combination with other drugs such as ofloxacin plus metronidazole or Cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin plus clindamycin 7,10 are used to relieve pelvic inflammatory, Diabetic food infections etc. Norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin are used in the treatment of traveller’s diarrhea and certain other infections such as typhoid fever and Vibrio cholera. Adverse events: Although quinolones are well tolerated and relatively safe, certain adverse effects are 13, 14 common. Gastro intestinal and Central nervous system 15,16 effects are the most frequent adverse events occurring in 2 to 20 per cent of patients 17-22.Other adverse effects such as QTC prolongation, 23,24 hepatotoxicity, tendon rupture, cardiovascular toxicity, disturbed blood glucose levels 25,26 certain dermatologic effects etc.

Mechanism of fluoroquinolones: Fluoroquinolones interfere with bacterial DNA metabolism by the inhibition of two enzymes, Topoisomerase II (Syn. DNA gyrase) and Topoisomerase IV. In gram-negative organisms DNA gyrase is the primary target, where as in Gram -positive bacteria topoisomerase IV was recently found to be most affected. The function of DNA gyrase is to introduce supercoils into the linear DNA double helix, which results in the highly condensed three dimensional structure of the DNA usually present inside the cell. The function of topoisomerase IV is involved in the separation process of the DNA daughter chains after chromosome duplication. DNA gyrase and Topoisomerase IV have a very similar protein structure, each composed of two sub units(Gyr-A and gyr-B). The Gyr-A subunits of this enzyme were proposed to initially bind to the double stranded DNA helix. In an ATP-dependent process, described as intermediate gate opening step-, both DNA strands are leaved at certain 4 base pair staggered sites. The 5’ends of the DNA chain are thereby bound covalently to Tyrosine 122 residues with in the Gyr-A-subunits. Gyr-B-subunits are probably responsible for the ATP-dependent releasing process of the DNA. Two quinolones molecules self-assemble inside the pocket in dimer structure 27 and attach to the gyrase -DNA complex electrostatically, which stabilizes the intermediate stage of this reaction step. Permanent gaps in the DNA strands induce synthesis of repair enzymes (exonucleases) initiating uncoordinated repair process, which results in irreversible damage to the DNA and, finally, cell death. 28, 29

Methodology: A knowledge of Molecular polarizability, diamagnetic susceptibility, Molecular electron ionisation cross section reflects on transport mobility, activity and the vigour of the electron associate with the interaction of the medicine with the electrons released from host cell(or effected cell) of the body during the reaction .Hence an investigation of these properties leading to the dosage of the few anti-microbial drugs (Quinolones) is taken up in the present investigation. The above parameters are obtained through quantum mechanical approach of Lippincott, Bond Polorizability and Bond Refractivity of Le Fevre. The diamagnetic susceptibility for these systems is evaluated using Rao &Murthy’s method. The molecular electron ionization cross section is then evaluated from diamagnetic susceptibility using modified Kevan’s formula of Murthy et al. The electron ionization cross section along with the data of Protein binding, Bioavailability, Log P,& Half-life are taken from Wikipedia are used in the present investigation.30 The related work of drug dosage activity through molecular electron ionization cross- section and medical parameters like bioavailability, protein binding etc., has been reported by Murthy et al in a few medicinal systems. 31, 32, 33 The present paper deals with the evaluation of dosages of a few anti-microbial drugs (Quinolones). The information regarding the Molecular polarizability obtained by Lippincott method, Bond polarizability and Bond refractivity, diamagnetic susceptibility and molecular electron ionisation cross section was given in already accepted previous papers31, 32, 33, 34

?aP = 4nA/ao [(R2/4) + (1/2(CR)2)]2 x e-(XA-XB)2/4 (1)

?an = ? fj aj (2)

? 2 a- = n df ?2j/?j2 (3)

aM=1/3[?aP+? a n +? 2 a-] (4)

aM=?[3/4pN?](R8) (5)

aM= n1 a(c=c) + n2 a(c-c) +———– ——–=Ojnjaj (6)

?M = ? m s1aM (7)

Q (in 10-16cm2)=0.278n ?M ( 8)

Molecular polarizablility can be calculated by Lippincott method, Bond refraction method and Bond polarizability method. The aM by Lippincott method is evaluated with help of parallel component (?a?p), Perpendicular component (?2a-) and ?a?n .The parallel Component?a?p, is based on parameters i.e. A, CR, ao are taken from Lippincott35 are given in the equation(1).The values of bond lengths required for evaluating?a?p are taken from CRC Hand book of Physics and Chemistry.36 Similarly the perpendicular component is given in the equation(3).The electronegativity and atomic polarizability values are taken from the reference.36Thus calculated ?a?p, ?a?n and ?2a- are given in table I. Finally from these values aM is measured by the formula (4). Molecular polarizabilty obtained by other methods i.e Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction methods are given table II. The values needed to calculate the mean molecular polarizabilty -aM’ from Bond refractivities and Bond polarizabiltes are taken from Le Fevre37.and expressed in 10-25cm3.

The diamagnetic susceptibility -?M’ is calculated with the help of equation 7. The -aM’ values obtained by three methods i.e. Lippincott, Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction are inserted in the given equation which gives the ?M. The necessary data required for the calculation of -s’ Covalency factor taken from reference. 38

The covalency factor is calculated as s=[s1 1/n1. s2 1/n2——–s n 1/n8-]1/2 (9) s=e-(XA-XB)2/4 Where XA and XB are electronegativity of the bond A- B respectively and n1, n2 are the bond orders. Calculation of ?M is immediately followed by -Q’, Electron ionisation cross section which only needs the ?M value. The ?M and -Q’ values obtained by Lippincott Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction are shown in the table III. Practical approach for diamagnetic susceptibility through vibrational magnetometer technique is under progress. Of the three methods -Q’ obtained by Bond polarizablities are taken as standard because, this method is found to be sensitive to conformational changes than the other two methods. In table IV, the calculated values of Electron ionisation cross section -Q’ along with other medicinal parameters are given. These include Protein binding, Bioavailability, Log P and Half life period of some anti-microbial (Quinolones). The data required are taken from Wikepedia30. By calculating the -Q’, an attempt has been done in studying the activity of a drug and further its interaction with the target molecule. Finally with the help of the expression 10, dosage of antimicrobial drugs is calculated and compared with the reported dosage values taken from reference 30. The results are given in the table V.

=((Q/D)2/3LLogP) va/5 (10)

Where, Q – Electron ionisation cross section D-Dosage of the drug L- is the Half-life period Log P -Hydrophobicity a= (PB)(BA)/6ms

Where, m – the no.of unsaturation bonds PB -Protein binding BA-Bioavailabilty s- the Covalency factor

Results and Discussion: A keen observation of the dosages of the medicinal compounds calculated and reported show he following features. The calculated dosage of Prefloxacin is 0.825 grams per day against the reported dosage value 0.8grams per day. Similarly Lomefloxacin and Sparfloxacin has the calculated value 0.394 grams per day and 0.211 grams per day compared with the reported dosage value0.4 grams and 0.222grams per day. Good agreement regarding the dosage values were observed in case of other medicinal compounds also. An analytical approach on Q and medicinal parameters reveal some observations .Generally the medicinal compounds having similarity in their structure are analysed. In case of Quinolones (Antimicrobial drugs) ,Prefloxacin has the -Q’valuei.e3.03×10-16 cm2 less than Lomefloxacin Q value11. 27×10-16 cm2 But increased half-life period 8.6hrs than half life period of Lomefloxacin 3 to 5 hrs. Similarly for Nalidixic acid the half life is 1.1to2.5hrsless than the Ciprofloxacin h alflife period i.e.3 to 4 hrs. Compared to the -Q’ values of Nalidixic acid (12.23×10-16 cm2) and Norfloxacin (8.33×10-16 cm2). An attempt has been made in analysing the relation between Log P (Hydrophobicity) and ‘Q’ Electron ionization cross section. The hydrophobicity of Sparfloxacin is2.5 compared with the hydrophobicity value of Moxifloxcin 2.9 against the -Q’ value Sparfloxacin11.806×10-16 cm2 and Moxifloxacin 9.459 x10-16 cm2. Similar observations is done in case of Prefloxacin and Lomefloxacin. From the above data it is hypothesized that lower the hydrophobic nature of the drug higher may be the interaction of the drug with the target molecule and finally the activity of drug molecule i.e. Electron ionization cross section. Comparison of -Q’, Electron ionisation cross section value and the dosage value reflect some useful and supporting view to the above analysis. In case of Sparfloxacin Q value ( 11.806×10-16 cm2). The reported dosage value is0.22grams per day againt the lower Moxifloxacin Q value 9.459 x10-16 cm2 and higher dosage value 0.4grams per day respectively. Similarly Lomefloxacin (Q value11. 27×10-16 cm2) has 0.4grmas per day to Prefloxacin (Q’valueless than Lomefloxacin i.e3.03×10-16 cm2) dosage value 0.8 grams per day. Rigorous work is under study in order to understand the relation between -Q’, dosage and other medicinal parameters of other medicinal compounds.

A plausible explanation for this behaviour may be given as follows. An increase in electron transportation activity reflected by higher electron ionization cross section will tender the chemical reaction to be faster. Hence an incidence of electron from the donor to the place of malignity will make the process curing faster. Thus very little dosage of the medicine will be sufficient. A long continued impingement of the electrons on the malgn cells might develop saturation effects. Hence the life time of the drug for limited time suggested. Thus an increase in Q explains lower half life and lower dosage. A continued dosage of such medicine might result in undesirable toxic effects. Rigorous work is under study in order to understand the relation between -Q’, dosage and other medicinal parameters of other medicinal compounds.

Inference: The present method hints at study of important physical parameters like refractivity and electron ionization cross section through simple molecular structure. An elucidation of Q and its use with other medicinal parameters yield a new method of obtaining medicinal dosage. Thus the present method of arriving at medicinal dosage through physical parameters n, k ,Q give a novel approach of equation of dosage and looking at it from molecular level of interactions. This approach has the superiority over the already available sophisticated medicinal methods which involve highly theoretical quantum mechanical modelling, highly computive modelling or highly sophisticated physicochemical methods of drug analysis.

References 1)Nelson JM, Chiller TM, Powers JH, Angulo FJ (April 2007). “Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44 (7): 977-80. doi:10.1086/512369. PMID 17342653. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/512369?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dncbi.nlm.nih.gov 2)Ivanov DV, Budanov SV (2006). “[Ciprofloxacin and antibacterial therapy of respiratory tract infections]” (in Russian). Antibiot. Khimioter. 51 (5): 29-37. PMID 17310788 3)Stacy J. Childs, MD (2000). “Safety of the Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics: Focus on Molecular Structure”. Infect Urol (USA: FQresearch) 13 (1): 3-10. 4)Catherine M.Oliphant,Pharm.D.,Gray M. Green, M.D.,-Quinolones: A Comprehensive Review-,Am Fam Physician. 2002 Feb1;65(3):455-465. 5)Turnidge J. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones. Drugs. 1999;58(suppl 2):29-36. 6)Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, Mandell LA, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Fine MJ. Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Infectious Disease Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:347-82. 7) Hooper D. Quinolones. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 5thed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2000:404-23. 8)Liu, H.; Mulholland, SG. (July 2005). “Appropriate antibiotic treatment of genitourinary infections in hospitalized patients.”. Am J Med 118 Suppl 7A: 14S-20S. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.05.009. PMID 15993673. 9)Sabbaj J, Hoagland VL, Cook T. Norfloxacin versus co-trimoxazole in the treatment of recurring urinary tract infections in men. Scand J Infect Dis 28 Suppl. 1986;48:48-53. 10)Hooper DC. New uses for new and old quinolones and the challenge of resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:243-54. 11)Vardakas, KZ.; Siempos, II.; Grammatikos, A.; Athanassa, Z.; Korbila, IP.; Falagas, ME. (December 2008). “Respiratory fluoroquinolones for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.”. CMAJ 179 (12): 1269-77. doi:10.1503/cmaj.080358. PMID 19047608. PMC 2585120. http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/179/12/1269 12)1998 guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998;47(RR-1):1-111. 13)De Sarro A, De Sarro G (March 2001). “Adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones. an overview on mechanistic aspects” (PDF). Curr. Med. Chem. 8 (4): 371-84. PMID 11172695. http://www.fqresearch.org/pdf_files/cmc.pdf. 14)Owens RC, Ambrose PG (July 2005). “Antimicrobial safety: focus on fluoroquinolones”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41 Suppl 2: S144-57. doi:10.1086/428055. PMID 15942881. 15)Owens RC, Ambrose PG (July 2005). “Antimicrobial safety: focus on fluoroquinolones”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41 Suppl 2: S144-57. doi:10.1086/428055. PMID 15942881. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?CID34940

16) Iannini PB (June 2007). “The safety profile of moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones in special patient populations”. Curr Med Res Opin 23 (6): 1403-13. doi:10.1185/030079907X188099. PMID 17559736. 17)Hooper DC. Mode of action of fluoroquinolones. Drugs. 1999;58(suppl 2):6-10. 18)Hackbarth CJ, Chambers HF, Sande MA. Serumbactericidal activity of rifampin in combination with other antimicrobial agents againstStaphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986;29:611-3. 19)Walker RC. The fluoroquinolones. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74:1030-7. 20). Lipsky BA, Baker CA. Fluoroquinolone toxicity profiles: a review focusing on newer agents. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:352-64. 21)Stahlmann R, Lode H. Toxicity of quinolones. Drugs. 1999;58(suppl 2):37-42. 22)Harrell RM. Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy: what do we know?. South Med J. 1999;92:622-5. 23)Falagas ME, Rafailidis PI, Rosmarakis ES (April 2007). “Arrhythmias associated with fluoroquinolone therapy”. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 29 (4): 374-9. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.11.011. PMID 17241772. 24)Rubinstein E (2001). “History of quinolones and their side effects”. Chemotherapy 47 Suppl 3: 3-8; discussion 44-8. doi:10.1159/000057838. PMID 11549783. http://content.karger.com/produktedb/produkte.asp?typ=fulltext&file=che7c003 25)Mehlhorn AJ, Brown DA (November 2007). “Safety concerns with fluoroquinolones”. Ann Pharmacother 41 (11): 1859-66. doi:10.1345/aph.1K347. PMID 17911203. 26)Lewis RJ, Mohr JF (2008). “Dysglycaemias and fluoroquinolones”. Drug Saf 31 (4): 283-92. doi:10.2165/00002018-200831040-00002. PMID 18366239. 27)Hooper DC, Wolfson JS: Mechanism of quinolone action and bacterial killing, in Hooper DC, Wolfson JS (eds): Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, ed 2. Washington DC, American Society for Microbiology: 53 – 75, 1993. 28)Shen LL: Quinolone – DNA interaction, in Hooper DC, Wolfson JS (eds): Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, ed 2. Washington DC, American Society for Microbiology: 77 – 95, 1993. 29)Morais Cabral JH, Jackson AP, Smith CV, Shikotra N, Maxwell A, Liddington RC: Crystal structure of the breakage-reunion domain of DNA gyrase. Nature Vol 388 / 28: 903 – 906, 1997. 30)http://www.winkipedia.com 31)Murthy, V.R.& Venkata Raghuram D, Drug, dosage, activity, Studies of antimalarials by Physical methods-II, Bonformation 2(1); 12-16(2007). 32)Murthy, V.R.& Venkata Raghuram D and Murthy, P.N.romanian J.Phy. 17, 207, 2007. 33)Murthy, V.R.& Venkata Raghuram D and Murthy, P.N. Proce.National Seminar recent trends in Biomedical Physics. Guntur.(India) p.122-132. 34)V.R. Murthy, S.Kavitha, K.R.S. Samba Siva Rao,- Drug, Dosage Studies of A Few Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants- http://www.amazines.com/article_detail.cfm?articleid=2205851. 35) Rao. B.P., Murthy,V.R.,-Curr.Sci.-,1972, 41, No:1

36) David, R. Lide, CRC Hand Book of Chemistry and Physics, National Institute of Standard Technology, CRC Press LLC, London, (2004). 37)Molecular Refractivity and Polarizability by R.J.W. Le Fevr, Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry 3,1-90,(1965). 38) A Hand Book Of Chemistry and Physics ,CNR Rao, Mahanthy & others, Affliated East &West Press Limited, New Delhi,(1967).

TABLE-1 Molecular Polarizabilities of Anti-microbial drugs(Quinolones) by Lippincott method in 10-25cm3

S.NoName of the drug?a?p?a?n?2a- 1Nalidixic acid469.19117.784231.208 2Norfloxacin645.04924.96346.985 3Ciprofloxacin691.86624.956272.072 4Sparfloxacin768.94024.956272.072 5Moxifloxacin862.9924.703329.746 6Prefloxacin680.24320.756306.652 7Lomefloxacin687.93520.756269.383

TABLE-II Molecular Polarozablities (aM) in 10-25cm3 S. NoName of the drugaM by Lippincott methodaM by Bond PolarizablityaM by Bond Refraction 1Nalidixic acid231.208266.244247.319 2Norfloxacin315.907346.985333.101 3Ciprofloxacin329.631366.252342.97 4Sparfloxacin385.709383.183378.339 5Moxifloxacin405.814423.115421.671 6Prefloxacin335.894354.352352.635 7Lomefloxacin326.025347.852347.166

TABLE-III The Diamagnetic Susceptibilities (in 106CGS units) and Molecular Electron Ionisation cross section (in10-16cm2)of certain Anti-microbial drugs(Quinolones) ? M in 106CGS units Qin10-16cm2 S.NoName of the drugByByByByByBy LippincottBond PolarizabilityBondLippincottBond PolarizabilityBond Refraction method Refractionmethod 1Nalidixic acid56.41764.96760.3411.43313.16612.23 2Norfloxacin38.98942.82541.1127.9028.6798.332 3Ciprofloxacin65.82373.14668.49512.3414.82413.881 4Sparfloxacin59.39959.10158.25612.03811.97811.806 5Moxifloxacin44.9246.83546.6779.1049.4929.46 6Prefloxacin14.25415.03814.9642.8893.0483.033 7Lomefloxacin53.85155.74855.63810.91411.29511.276

TABLE-IV Electron Ionisation cross section (in10-16cm2 ) and other medicinal parameters

S.NoName of the drugQ PB BALog PHalf Life(hrs) 1Nalidixic acid12.23093962.11.1-2.51.383 2Norfloxacin8.33215502.13-41.1383 3Ciprofloxacin13.88130502.53-51.176 4Sparfloxacin11.80650502.5201.272 5Moxifloxacin9.45986-92402.9121.477 6Prefloxacin3.033251002.48.61.450 7Lomefloxacin11.2760.725502.13-51.335

TABLE-V Drug dosage (in grams/day) S. NoName of the druga’Calculated dosages grams/dayReported dosages grams/day 1Nalidixic acid0.0951.3834.0334.0 2Norfloxacin0.0091.1380.6510.80 3Ciprofloxacin0.0131.1790.8491.0 4Sparfloxacin0.0261.2730.2110.222 5Moxifloxacin0.0491.4750.4090.40 6Prefloxacin0.0691.4490.8250.8 7Lomefloxacin0.0371.3350.3940.4

Identify Early warning Signs of Skin Cancer – Do You Have Skin Cancer

An understanding early detection of skin cancer is crucial to prevent experiencing the more serious and dangerous form of skin cancer. From the least to the most dangerous, they are: basal cell carcinoma (or basal cell carcinoma epithelioma), squamous cell carcinoma (the first stage of which is called actinic keratosis) and melanoma.

Cancer is defined as the abnormal growth and division of cells in the body. If this errant growth is restricted to a few cells then it poses no threat to humans. Should it start to spread unchecked by the body’s immune system then it becomes what is termed malignant or cancerous.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun can be harmful to the skin and is the main cause of of skin cancer. According to the US National Institutes of Health it damages the DNA that regulates the skin cells. Excessive and long-term exposure to UV, either naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as sunlamps can lead to skin cancer. In a lesser amount of cases skin cancer can also be inherited genetically.

Asymmetry means irregular shape. Dividing the mole in half with an imaginary line, the top half should look very close to the bottom half or the right side the same as the left side if the mole is normal or benign. Therefore, benign or non-cancerous and non-malignant moles are usually symmetrical or look the same on both sides of the dividing line. If the mole is irregular in shape and both sides do not compare well then this is an indication of a possible skin cancer problem.

Border refers to the outside edge of the mole or spot. A normal or benign mole or growth has smooth and even outer borders. A problematic growth has borders that are described using many different terms such as notched, jagged, scalloped, poorly defined, uneven, or even blurred. In summary, these terms are simply describing an irregularity or lack of smoothness in the borders of the mole or growth.

Color is also one of the five signs of skin cancer. In this case, look for whether the mole has an even color or hue. If the mole has more than one hue, then this could be a cause for concern. Benign growths are generally one color, hue, or shade. Brown is often the normal color, but not always. Cancerous moles can have shades of black mixed into shades of brown or tan. Dashes of red, white, and blue may also appear as the cancer progresses.

Diameter or the size of the mole or growth is one of the five skin cancer signs to be aware of. If the growth is larger than 6 mm or a quarter of an inch, then medical attention should be pursued. In relative terms, the eraser on the end of a pencil is about 6 mm in size. Of course, it is less likely, but possible that growths smaller than this size can be cancerous. Any mole growing in size is a concern and should be examined by a medical professional.

Evolving. The mole has been changing in size, shape, color, appearance, or growing in an area of previously normal skin. Also, when cancer develops in an existing mole, the texture of the mole may change and become hard, lumpy, or scaly. Although the skin may feel different and may itch, ooze, or bleed, cancer usually does not cause pain.

If you find that any change in the texture of the skin, contact your doctor immediately. Any change in skin pigmentation can be a sign of skin cancer.

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Protandim Review – ABC Health Report – The Bottom Line

For those who have seen the video replay of the ABC Primetime Investigation of Protandim from LifeVantage and get the science are left

wanting more data about the product and the company manufacturing it. Once you find out that there is a business opportunity behind it all that allows you a chance for once to really make something significant happen financially generates even more excitement. Yes there are hard times ahead for all of us as a result of the economy and sometimes it seems that the world has come to a screeching halt which only makes the launching of a company such as this even that more important.

So for those who don’t get or understand the significance of Protandim here is my attempt to shed some light on the subject. For the first time ever a test can be given to see the amount of oxidative stress occurring in your body. This test is not so new. However what is new is that there now is an over the counter patented pill that lowers the oxidative stress levels in your body by 40% in everyone who takes the pill. Thislowering can be accurately measured once someone has taken the pill for at least 2 weeks.

Everyone has oxidative stress. The amount you have in your body determines how fast the inside of your body ages. Oxidative stress is a form of rusting in your body at the cellular level. Superoxide Dismutase is the enzyme that your body produces to rid your body of the burning and waste that is produced in your cells when you expose them to everything from oxygen to toxins. Food, alcohol, smoke and even sun light generate what is called -Free Radicals- which over time damage cells and cell tissue. Exercise and injury’s to your body cause oxidative stress. Think of it as rust on a car or dirt in your engine. Your body uses an enzyme called Superoxide Dismotase which is created at the cellular level and triggered by your DNA. Protandim has been medically proven to trigger your body’s ability to generate the necessary amount of SOD at the rate of 1 million to 1.

So the bottom line is that for about $50 dollars per month you can lower your oxidative stress to the level of a young teenager. There is no other company offering any type of pill that can come close to making this statement. The science and research provided by Dr. Joe McCord relegates most every other product making anti aging or anti oxidant claims outdated. Keep in mind that oxidative stress has been clinically proven to lead to over 200 different deceases including cancer. So if high oxidative stress makes your insides age faster and compromises your DNA which can lead to deceases and cancer, wouldn’t it make sense to keep your oxidative stress levels low? The bottom line is that this is not a prescription drug and chances are your doctor still may not be aware of the peer reviewed articles. If you are the insists on a doctors authorization for an aspirin you might consider sharing the ABCHealthReport.com video which will point him or her in the direction needed for a recommendation to Protandim.

Whether you need more information or you’re ready to actively start marketing you start by visiting href=”http://igotscience.com” target=”_blank”>I Got Science. Walt Rice has developed winning strategies to help just about anyone reach their marketing and financial goals. href=”http://igotscience.com” target=”_blank”>YouTube Video